Home

Search

Pathway AI

Account ⋅ Sign Out

Table of contents

Tracheoesophageal malformations

Key sources
The following summarized guidelines for the evaluation and management of tracheoesophageal malformations are prepared by our editorial team based on guidelines from the International Network of Esophageal Atresia, Respiratory Complications Working Group (INEARC-WG 2020) and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN 2016).
1
2

Guidelines

1.Diagnostic investigations

Evaluation for tracheobronchomalacia: perform flexible bronchoscopy as the gold standard for the evaluation of tracheobronchomalacia.
A
Show 6 more
Create free account

More topics in this section

  • Evaluation for anatomic anomalies

  • Evaluation for VMs

  • Evaluation for dysphagia

  • Evaluation for acid reflux

  • Evaluation for eosinophilic esophagitis

  • Evaluation for aspiration

  • Evaluation for bronchitis and pneumonia

  • Evaluation for bronchiectasis

2.Respiratory support

Airway clearance: institute airway clearance techniques in asymptomatic pediatric patients with positive cultures in BAL.
B

More topics in this section

  • Noninvasive ventilation

  • Tracheostomy

3.Medical management

Acid suppression therapy: as per INEARC-WG 2020 guidelines, consider initiating a trial of anti-gastroesophageal reflux therapy in pediatric patients with persistent respiratory symptoms.
C

More topics in this section

  • Antibiotic therapy

  • Bronchodilators

  • Mucolytics

  • Corticosteroids

  • Bethanechol

4.Nonpharmacologic interventions

Nutrition: ensure a multidisciplinary approach to prevent and treat feeding difficulties in patients with esophageal atresia.
B

5.Therapeutic procedures

Endoscopic dilation: consider performing endoscopic dilation as first-line therapy in patients with congenital esophageal stenosis.
C

6.Surgical interventions

Fundoplication: as per INEARC-WG 2020 guidelines, consider performing fundoplication for chronic respiratory symptoms and poorly controlled gastroesophageal reflux.
C

More topics in this section

  • Aortopexy

7.Preventative measures

Influenza vaccination: offer annual influenza vaccination in pediatric patients with esophageal atresia-tracheoesophageal fistula.
A

More topics in this section

  • RSV prophylaxis

8.Follow-up and surveillance

Follow-up: as per INEARC-WG 2020 guidelines, follow up pediatric patients with esophageal atresia-tracheoesophageal fistula by a specialized interdisciplinary team.
A
Show 2 more

More topics in this section

  • Evaluation of recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula

  • Management of postoperative anastomotic strictures

  • Management of postoperative dysphagia

  • Transition to adult care