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Testicular torsion

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The following summarized guidelines for the evaluation and management of testicular torsion are prepared by our editorial team based on guidelines from the European Association of Urology (EAU/ESPU 2023) and the American College of Radiology (ACR 2019).
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Guidelines

1.Diagnostic investigations

History and physical examination
Elicit history and perform physical examination for the diagnosis of testicular torsion.
Base the clinical decision on physical examination.
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  • Diagnostic imaging

2.Medical management

Conservative management: manage patients with torsion of testicular appendage conservatively.
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3.Surgical interventions

Timing of surgery: recognize that testicular torsion is a pediatric urological emergency and requires immediate treatment.
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manage neonates with acute scrotum as surgical emergencies.
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  • Technical considerations for surgery