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Bladder stones are hard mineral deposits that form in the bladder.
The pathophysiology of bladder stone formation involves supersaturation of urine with stone-forming substances, such as calcium, oxalate, or uric acid. This leads to nucleation, where these substances begin to aggregate and form crystals. Over time, these crystals grow into larger stones.
The incidence of bladder stones is higher in developing countries, with an estimated rate of 8.3 per 100,000 person-years in Indonesia. The incidence of bladder stones after bladder augmentation or vesicoenterocystostomy is estimated at 2-53%.
Clinically, bladder stones can present with a variety of symptoms, including hematuria, lower abdominal pain, and difficulties with urination, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, urgency, or incontinence. In some cases, bladder stones may also cause acute urinary retention.
Prognosis and risk of recurrence
The prognosis of bladder stones is generally good with appropriate treatment, but they can lead to complications if left untreated.
The following summarized guidelines for the evaluation and management of bladder stones are prepared by our editorial team based on guidelines from the European Association of Urology (EAU 2020).
Initial evaluation: obtain ultrasound as first-line imaging in patients with symptoms suggestive of a bladder stone.
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Oral chemolysis: offer oral chemolysis in adult patients with radiolucent or known uric acid bladder stones.
Offer transurethral cystolithotripsy in adult patients with bladder stones, where possible.
Perform transurethral cystolithotripsy with a continuous flow instrument (such as nephroscope or resectoscope) in adult patients, where possible.
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Shock wave lithotripsy
Procedures for bladder outlet obstruction
Surgical stone removal: consider offering open cystolithotomy as an option in adult patients with very large bladder stones.
Pediatric patients: offer transurethral cystolithotripsy in pediatric patients with bladder stones, where possible.
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Prevention of stone recurrence: offer regular irrigation therapy with saline solution to reduce the risk of stone recurrence in adult and pediatric patients with bladder augmentation, continent cutaneous urinary reservoir or neuropathic bladder dysfunction and no history of autonomic dysreflexia.
7.Follow-up and surveillance
Serial imaging assessment: individualize follow-up imaging for each patient. Recogne that factors affecting follow-up include whether the underlying functional predisposition to stone formation can be treated (such as transurethral resection of prostate) and metabolic risk.