Home

Loading...

Table of contents

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease

Background

Overview

Definition
HFMD is a common viral illness caused by enteroviruses, primarily affecting infants and children, although it can occasionally occur in adults.
1
Pathophysiology
HFMD is caused by enteroviruses, most commonly Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71. It transmitted through direct contact with the saliva, nasal mucus, blister fluid, and feces of infected individuals.
1
Epidemiology
The incidence of HFMD in China is estimated at 197 per 100,000 person-years. HFMD shows seasonal variation, with a peak in cases typically occurring in spring and early summer, and possesses the potential to escalate to epidemic levels.
2
3
Disease course
The clinical manifestations of HFMD typically include fever, sore throat, and a characteristic skin rash that presents as small, red, painful papules progressing to blisters on the hands, feet, and sometimes in the mouth, which can subsequently develop into ulcers.
4
Prognosis and risk of recurrence
The disease course is generally self-limiting, with symptoms resolving within a week without specific treatment. However, in rare cases, severe cardiac and neurologic complications can occur.
5

Guidelines

Key sources

The following summarized guidelines for the evaluation and management of hand-foot-and-mouth disease are prepared by our editorial team based on guidelines from the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP 2019). ...
Show more

Screening and diagnosis

Diagnosis: as per AAFP 2019 guidelines, diagnose HFMD based on the presence of a maculopapular or papulovesicular rash on the hands and soles of the feet and painful oral ulcerations.
B
Create free account

Medical management

Supportive care: as per AAFP 2019 guidelines, provide supportive care to patients with HFMD. Consider offering weight-based acetaminophen or ibuprofen for the management of fever and pain. Do not use oral lidocaine.
B

Preventative measures

Hand hygiene: as per AAFP 2019 guidelines, advise proper handwashing to decrease the risk of transmitting HFMD.
B