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Blood gas analysis

Definition
Blood gas analysis is a common diagnostic tool to correctly interpret most of the respiratory, circulatory, and metabolic derangements through arterial and pulmonary/central venous blood gas and electrolyte analysis.
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Pathophysiology
Blood gas analysis is used for the assessment of shunt fraction, pulmonary dead space, and respiratory, hemodynamic and metabolic relationship allowing for diagnosis and monitoring of critically ill patients.
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Disease course
Blood gas analysis is performed either through the arterial, central venous, or dual sampling of blood to assess oxygenation status, ventilatory and respiratory status, metabolic acid-base equilibrium disorders helping in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients in emergency departments and ICUs.
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Prognosis and risk of recurrence
Blood gas analysis is not associated with increased mortality.
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Key sources
The following summarized guidelines for the evaluation of blood gas analysis are prepared by our editorial team based on guidelines from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC 2013).
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Guidelines

1.Diagnostic investigations

General principles: obtain blood gas analysis and hemoximetry to evaluate a patient's ventilatory, acid-base, and/or oxygenation status.
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More topics in this section

  • Assessment of oxygenation

  • Assessment of ventilation