Home

Loading...

Table of contents

Myocarditis

What's new

Updated 2023 JCS guidelines for the diagnosis and management of myocarditis.

Guidelines

Key sources

The following summarized guidelines for the evaluation and management of myocarditis are prepared by our editorial team based on guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC 2023,2022,2013), the Japanese Circulation Society (JCS 2023), the European Society of Cardiology (ESC/ESTRO/EHA/IC-OS 2022), the American Heart Association (AHA 2020,2016), the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO 2020), the Single Hub and Access ...
Show more

Screening and diagnosis

Diagnosis: as per JCS 2023 guidelines, suspect myocarditis in patients having common cold-like symptoms (respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms) followed by signs and symptoms associated with HF or arrhythmias.
B
Create free account

Diagnostic investigations

History and physical examination: as per JCS 2023 guidelines, assess the following in patients with suspected myocarditis:
Situation
Guidance
History of present illness
Time of onset and course of symptoms
Past medical history
Skin rash (including insect bites)
History of medication, vaccination, and ingestion of harmful materials
Recent travel history
History of autoimmune disease
Physical examination
Fever and tachycardia (as signs of infection)
Bradycardia or tachycardia (indicating arrhythmia)
Low cardiac output (tachycardia, hypotension, cold extremities)
Left-sided HF (hypoxemia, third or fourth heart sound, moist rales)
Right-sided HF (jugular venous distention, hepatomegaly, peripheral edema)
B

More topics in this section

  • ECG

  • TTE

  • MRI

  • Nuclear imaging

  • Laboratory tests (inflammatory markers)

  • Laboratory tests (cardiac biomarkers)

  • Laboratory tests (metabolic panel)

  • Laboratory tests (serology)

Diagnostic procedures

Coronary angiography: as per ESC 2013 guidelines, consider obtaining selective coronary angiography in all patients with clinically suspected myocarditis.
E

More topics in this section

  • Endomyocardial biopsy

Medical management

Setting of care: as per JCS 2023 guidelines, consider hospitalizing patients with acute myocarditis and obtaining monitoring for at least 48 hours, even with stable hemodynamics or no HF symptoms.
C

More topics in this section

  • Management of fulminant myocarditis (inotropic support)

  • Management of fulminant myocarditis (circulatory support)

  • Management of HF

  • Management of cardiac arrhythmias (general principles)

  • Management of cardiac arrhythmias (antiarrhythmic drugs)

  • Management of cardiac arrhythmias (sedation)

  • Management of cardiac arrhythmias (cardiac pacing)

  • Management of cardiac arrhythmias (ICD implantation)

  • Management of cardiac arrhythmias (ECMO)

  • Management of cardiac arrhythmias (catheter ablation)

  • Immunosuppressive therapy

  • Antiviral therapy

Nonpharmacologic interventions

Physical activity restrictions: as per JCS 2023 guidelines, consider advising refraining from intense exercise for 6 months after onset in patients with improved HF symptoms, cardiac enzymes, abnormal ECG, and image findings.
C

Surgical interventions

Heart transplantation
As per ESC 2013 guidelines:
Defer cardiac transplantation in the acute phase of myocarditis as recovery may occur.
E
Consider performing cardiac transplantation in the acute phase of myocarditis in hemodynamically unstable patients, including with giant cell myocarditis, when optimal pharmacological support and mechanical assistance failed to stabilize the patient.
E

Specific circumstances

Neonatal patients, evaluation: as per JCS 2023 guidelines, obtain an ECG and echocardiography to diagnose myocarditis in neonatal patients.
B
Show 2 more

More topics in this section

  • Neonatal patients (management)

  • Pediatric patients (evaluation)

  • Pediatric patients (immunosuppressive therapy)

  • Pediatric patients (advanced cardiac life support)

  • Pediatric patients (patients with vasculitides)

  • Patients with myopericarditis

  • Patients with giant cell myocarditis (immunosuppressive therapy)

  • Patients with giant cell myocarditis (management of cardiac arrhythmia)

  • Patients with giant cell myocarditis (heart transplantation)

  • Patients with eosinophilic myocarditis

  • Patients with immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced myocarditis (evaluation)

  • Patients with immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced myocarditis (management)

  • Patients with immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced myocarditis (restarting ICI therapy)

Follow-up and surveillance

Serial clinical and imaging assessment: as per ESC 2023 guidelines, consider obtaining contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI in the serial follow-up and for the assessment of therapeutic response in patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy.
C

More topics in this section

  • Serial endomyocardial biopsy

  • Return to sport activities