Table of contents

Vitamins, minerals, and dietary supplements

What's new

Updated 2023 USPSTF guidelines for folic acid supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects.


Key sources

The following summarized guidelines for the management of vitamins, minerals, and dietary supplements are prepared by our editorial team based on guidelines from the Endocrine Society (ES 2024,2011), the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF 2023,2022,2018,2015,2014), the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD 2022), the World Health Organization (WHO 2022), the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG 2021), ...
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Nonpharmacologic interventions

Vitamin B2: as per CHS 2012 guidelines, offer riboflavin (400 mg/day) in eligible patients for migraine prophylaxis.
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More topics in this section

  • Vitamin B9

  • Vitamin C

  • Vitamin D and calcium (daily requirements)

  • Vitamin D and calcium (general adult population)

  • Vitamin D and calcium (prevention of falls)

  • Vitamin D and calcium (prevention of fractures)

  • Vitamin D and calcium (prevention of CVD)

  • Vitamin D and calcium (prevention of diabetes)

  • Vitamin E

  • Multivitamins

  • Dietary supplements (cardiovascular/cancer prevention)

  • Dietary supplements (migraine attack prevention)

  • Dietary supplements (neuroprotection for PD)

  • Dietary supplements (caries prevention)

Specific circumstances

Neonatal and pediatric patients, vitamin D: as per ES 2024 guidelines, consider initiating empiric vitamin D supplementation in children and adolescents aged 1-18 years to prevent nutritional rickets and potentially lower the risk of respiratory tract infections.

More topics in this section

  • Neonatal and pediatric patients (preterm infants)

  • Elderly patients (vitamin D)

  • Elderly patients (multivitamins)

  • Pregnant patients (prenatal vitamins)

  • Pregnant patients (vitamin A)

  • Pregnant patients (vitamin B6)

  • Pregnant patients (vitamin B9 and B12)

  • Pregnant patients (vitamin D)

  • Pregnant patients (iron)

  • Pregnant patients (iodine)

  • Patients after bariatric surgery (general principles)

  • Patients after bariatric surgery (vitamin B1)

  • Patients after bariatric surgery (vitamin B9)

  • Patients after bariatric surgery (vitamin B12)

  • Patients after bariatric surgery (pregnancy)

  • Patients with herbal and dietary supplement-induced liver injury